工业PLC控制二:PLC电气架构讲解

1 简介

PLC的基本知识在第一章已经讲过,详细请参考工业PLC控制一:PLC基础知识。目前汽车行业中主流的PLC控制系统均采用Rockwell PLC或者SIEMENS PLC,虽然PLC类型可能有所差别,但是整个工厂的基本电气控制系统架构大体上相似,大家在做电气方案时需按照实际标准进行设计。

目前以通用汽车的标准为大家做详细讲解,本篇以通用汽车电气架构标准为大家描述了通用汽车的通用控制架构标准,并描述了它应如何应用于工厂生产系统和设备。

2 范围

The GM Common Controls Architecture can be applied to Bodyshop, Conveyors, General Assembly (GA), Paint, Plant Floor Systems (PFS), Powertrain and Press. Because of the possible timing differences of executing projects and programs within the same manufacturing facility between the different areas, there may be a mix of Common Controls Architecture ‘vintages’. An all new Bodyshop would employ the latest Common Controls Architecture, but, adding new tooling to existing equipment would most likely keep that existing architecture. The use of the latest Common Controls Architecture is determined by the Project Lead Engineers and Managers.

GM通用控制架构可应用于车身车间,输送,总装车间,油漆车间,Plant Floor Systems(PFS),发动机车间以及冲压车间。 由于在不同区域之间的同一制造设施内执行项目和程序可能存在时间差异,因此可能会混合使用通用控制架构的“年份”。全新的车身车间将采用最新的通用控制架构,但是为现有设备添加新工具很可能会保留现有架构。最新的通用控制架构的使用由项目主管工程师和经理决定。

2 通用控制架构

The Controls Architecture is the utilization of distributed programmable logic controllers (PLC’s) and highly distributed inputs/outputs (I/O).

  • Safety PLC’s (Rockwell GuardLogix and Safety Partner) are provided on high automation equipment (i.e., robotic cells) and where there are a significant number of e-stop/safety guarding requirements. A Safety PLC may also centrally control a group of smaller tools or conveyor system.
  • Smaller safety PLC’s (Rockwell Compact GuardLogix) may control smaller tools or equipment.
  • Non-safety PLC’s (Rockwell ControlLogix, CompactLogix) are provided on equipment which do not require many safety circuits (i.e., operator light screens, e-stops, perimeter guarding).

控制架构是利用分布式可编程逻辑控制器(PLC)和高度分布的输入/输出(I / O)。

  • 安全PLC(Rockwell GuardLogix和Safety Partner)在高自动化设备(即机器人工位)上提供,并且存在大量的急停/安全防护要求。 安全PLC还可以集中控制一组较小的工具或输送系统。
  • 小型安全PLC(Rockwell Compact GuardLogix)可以控制较小的工具或设备。
  • 非安全PLC(Rockwell ControlLogix,CompactLogix)提供在不需要许多安全电路的设备上(即操作员屏幕,电子停止,周边防护)。

The GM common controls architecture is based around a philosophy of using PLCs with ladder logic for control. PCs have reliability issues and can present security challenges for the plant floor environment. The use of PCs for machine control is prohibited unless approved by the responsible GM controls project engineer.

GM通用控制架构基于使用PLC和梯形逻辑进行控制的理念。 PC存在可靠性问题,可能会给工厂车间环境带来安全挑战。 除非得到负责任的GM控制项目工程师的批准,否则禁止使用PC进行机器控制。

Due to the highly distributed nature of the GM controls architecture and the significant usage of safety PLCs, local (PLC Chassis) IO cards are rarely used. Plant floor control networks are the primary mechanism for exchanging control interlocks. The 2 primary networks utilized are:

由于GM控制架构的高度分布性和安全PLC的大量使用,很少使用本地(PLC机箱)IO卡。 工厂车间控制网络是交换控制联锁的主要机制。所使用的2个主要网络是:

  • EtherNet/IP for real-time control (safe and standard), messaging communication and I/O communication (safe and standard).
  • 以太网/IP实时控制(安全标准),消息通信和I/O通信(安全标准)
  • DeviceNet for I/O communication (safe and standard).
  • 用于I/O通信的DeviceNet(安全和标准)

Note: The use of DeviceNet or EtherNet/IP for I/O varies based on the vintage of Common Controls Architecture and is determined by the Project Lead Engineers and Managers.
注意:使用DeviceNet或EtherNet / IP进行I / O会因公共控制架构的年份而异,并由项目主管工程师和经理决定。

The majority of the control circuits, relays, contactors, and field devices (switches and valves) are powered with 24vdc.
大多数控制电路,继电器,接触器和现场设备(开关和阀门)均由24vdc供电。

The architecture structure is fundamentally similar between all the functional areas of the plant (Body, Conveyor, General Assembly, Paint, Plant Floor Systems, Powertrain and Press) despite their unique processes. They all have a defined system, or area of control which in some areas may be further defined by workcells and stations.

尽管工厂的工艺独特,但工厂的所有功能区域(车身,输送机,总装,油漆,工厂车间系统,动力总成和压力机)的结构基本相似。 它们都有一个确定的系统或控制区域,在某些区域可以由工作单元和工作站进一步定义。

This architecture uses standard panels (Also known as ECS’s – Electrical Cabinet Standard) and components coupled with standard industrial connectors to leverage the benefits of common designs. These benefits include: reducing design time, facilitating reuse, reducing component cost, and improving final design quality. All designs shall use the Common Controls Architecture standard panel designs (ECS’s) and standard templates where applicable.

该架构使用标准面板(也称为ECS-电气柜标准)和与标准工业连接器相结合的组件,以充分利用通用设计的优势。 这些优势包括:缩短设计时间,促进重复使用,降低组件成本,并提高最终设计质量。所有设计均应使用通用控制架构标准面板设计(ECS)和适用的标准模板。

2.2 自动化水平分类(架构定义)

The level of automation can be classified into 6 main groups. These groups are distinguished by the type of control system used and the safety functions.

自动化水平可分为6个主要组。 这些组的特点是使用的控制系统类型和安全功能。

2.3 架构核心元素

The GM common controls architecture is made up of many standard components. The key elements of the architecture are show in Figure 4-1 below.

GM通用控制架构由许多标准组件组成。 该体系结构的关键元素如下图4-1所示。

Controller Networks Power
Hardware
PLC
Rockwell
Control
Logix
Family
Software
Ladder
Logic
Rockwell
RS Logix
Peer-Peer
EtherNet/IP
Media
I/O
EtherNet/IP
DeviceNet
ODVA
Media
Panel
120VAC
IEC
NEC
Media
Field
24VDC
IP6X
Standard
Media

2.3 供电架构

The Power Architecture consists of a Power Distribution Panel (PDP) which has many branch feeds of 380vac – 575vac (region specific) for robots, motors, and other three phase loads. The PDP also provides 120vac to the Master Control Panel, remote panels with 24vdc power supplies, and other various components.

供电架构包含一个配电柜(PDP),它有许多380V--575V(特定区域)的交流的分支馈电,用于机器人,电机和其他三相负载。 PDP也为主控柜提供120V交流电流,带24V直流电源的远程面板和其他各种电气元器件。

In some facilities it is common for the weld controllers in the bodyshop to be powered from a separate plant bus feed provided specifically for welding. Other facilities may only provide a single bus feed for both electrical equipment and welding. A welding PDP may be used to reduce the number of plant bus feeds to the equipment.

在一些设备中,车身车间的焊接控制器通常由专门为焊接提供的单独的工厂总线馈电供电。其他设施只能为电气设备和焊接提供单一总线供电。焊接PDP可用于减少向设备供电的工厂总线数量。

Exception: Where allowed regionally 220VAC may be used in place of 120VAC. The connector and cable strategy for 220VAC is identical to 120VAC. Most standard panels (ECS) and components are designed such that they can be used with either 120VAC or 220VAC.

例外情况:在允许的情况下,可使用220V交流代替120V交流。220V交流的连接器和电缆策略与120V交流相同。大多数标准面板(ECS)和组件的设计使得它们可以与120v交流或220V交流一起使用。

2.4 连接器和电缆

Cables and connections between control panels and equipment for 3 phase line voltage power distribution (380-575VAC) shall be either 4 Pole M35 connections or shall be hardwire. All panel to panel control voltage (120 VAC and 24 VDC) connections shall use plug-in cables and receptacles. Cables and connections for 120VAC (and 220VAC where allowed) power distribution shall be 3 pin Mini. Cables and connectors for 24VDC power distribution shall be 4 pin Mini. All cable connections shall have external threads on the male end and internal threads on the female end to facilitate the series connection of cables without special coupling nuts or devices. The standard pin rotation for each connection is detailed in section 11 of this document.

三相线路电压配电(380-575V交流)控制柜和设备之间的电缆和连接应为4芯M35连接或硬线连接。所有面板到面板控制电压(120V交流和24V直流)连接应使用插入电缆和插座。120V交流(如允许,220V交流)配电的电缆和连接应为3芯迷你型。24V直流配电的电缆和连接器应为4芯迷你型。所有的电缆接头的连接都应该在公头上有外螺纹,在母头上有内螺纹,以便在没有特殊连接螺母或装置的情况下进行电缆的串联。本文件第11节详细介绍了每个连接的标准引脚旋转。

Multi-conductor cables for low voltage (300 volts ac/dc or less) shall use the Harting Han EE Series connector or equivalent. This does not apply to molded cord connectors for field devices (e.g., proximity sw’s, limit sw’s, pressure sw’s). The current rating of the multi-conductor cables and connectors shall not exceed 10 amps.

低压(300V交流或直流或以下)多导体电缆应使用Harting Han EE系列连接器或同等产品。这不适用于现场设备(如接近开关、限位开关、压力开关)的塑模电线连接器。多芯电缆和连接器的额定电流不得超过10安培。

Exceptions:

  • High mate and unmate frequency applications (i.e.: interchangeable tooling and dies) may use connectors rated for that type of application.
  • Electronic equipment which may use connectors rated for that application.
  • Where “field” assembly is required (e.g., long cable runs for conveyors) the use of Harting Han E-Series with screws or equivalent connectors is acceptable.

例外情况:

  • 高匹配和未匹配频率应用(即:可互换工具和模具)可使用该类型应用的额定连接器。
  • 可使用该应用额定连接器的电子设备。
  • 如果需要“现场”组装(例如,传送带的长电缆线路),可使用带螺丝或同等连接器的Harting Han E系列。

Other applications shall require written pre-approval of the responsible GM Controls Project Engineer.
其他申请应要求负责任的GM控制项目工程师书面预先批准。

架构图例
Architecture Diagram Legend.jpg

2.5 网络架构

2.5.1 Ethernet 以太网

  1. EtherNet/IP is used for real-time control and interlocking from PLC to PLC (peer-topeer), PLC to process controllers (i.e., robots, weld controllers, fastening equipment, dispensing) and robots to its process equipment (i.e., weld controllers, stud controllers, sealer controllers). EtherNet/IP is also used for field inputs and outputs via an EtherNet/IP I/O block or an EtherNet/IP intelligent device.

    以太网/IP用于PLC与PLC (peer-topeer)、PLC与过程控制器(例如机器人、焊接控制器、紧固设备、分配设备及与其工艺设备(例如焊接控制器、螺柱控制器、涂胶控制器)。以太网/IP也用于通过以太网/IP I/O块或以太网/IP智能设备进行现场的输入和输出。
  2. Safety interlocks can also be exchanged via EtherNet/IP provided both end devices support the safety protocol. Safe and standard interlocks can communicate on the same Ethernet network.

    安全联锁也可以通过以太网/IP交换,前提是两个终端设备都支持安全协议。安全联锁和标准联锁可以在同一个以太网网络上通信。
  3. Ethernet is used to communicate PLC to HMI and PLC to vision systems. Communications between host computer systems and PLC’s for build data, fault messages, downtime data, and/or program archiving is over Ethernet.

    以太网用于通信PLC到HMI和PLC到视觉系统。主机计算机系统与PLC之间的通信,用于建造数据、故障消息、下载数据和/或程序存档,均在以太网上。
  4. All Ethernet devices at the controller (cell) level are connected to a Controller Ethernet switch, either directly or via a linear network. Most manufacturing systems have many Ethernet connections and may require multiple Ethernet switches. When multiple Switches are needed at any level, all additional switches should be uplinked into the first switch.

    控制器(单元)级的所有以太网设备都直接或通过线性网络连接到控制器以太网交换机。大多数制造系统都有许多以太网连接,可能需要多个以太网交换机。当在任何级别需要多个开关时,所有附加的开关都应该连接到第一个开关。
  5. When multiple controllers need to share interlock information an additional switch(es) shall be provided to allow for these connections. These switches are called system switches.

    当多个控制器需要共享联锁信息时,应提供额外的开关以允许这些连接。这些开关称为系统开关。

Exception: Single Ethernet devices or Ethernet devices in a linear network may not require a Controller Ethernet switch.
例外情况:线性网络中的单个以太网设备或以太网设备可能不需要控制器以太网交换机。

2.5.2 DeviceNet 设备网

  1. DeviceNet is used communicate PLC to field inputs and outputs which are external to the main panel (e.g., sensors, valves) via a DeviceNet I/O block or DeviceNet intelligent devices. The DeviceNet network shall be connected to DeviceNet scanner module in the ControlLogix chassis. For robot controlled devices (e.g., end-of-arm tooling), the robot’s DeviceNet network shall be connected to the robot scanner module inside the robot controller.

    设备网用于通过设备网I/O块或设备网智能设备将PLC与主面板外部的现场输入和输出(如传感器、阀门)通信。设备网应连接到ControlLogix机箱中的设备网扫描仪模块。对于机器人控制的设备(如臂端加工),机器人的设备网应连接到机器人控制器内的机器人扫描仪模块。
  2. DeviceNet-Safe is used to communicate the safety I/O to the safety PLC. Since the safety traffic is given a higher priority, both safe and standard I/O can communicate on the same DeviceNet network.

    设备安全用于将安全I/O与安全PLC进行通信。由于安全流量被赋予了更高的优先级,因此安全的I/O和标准的I/O都可以在同一个设备网络上通信。

2.6 供电以及网络架构示例

2.6.1 供电架构一

Power Architecture Figure 1.jpg

2.6.2 供电架构二

Power Architecture Figure 2.jpg

2.6.3 供电架构三

Power Architecture Figure 3.jpg

2.6.4 供电架构四

Power Architecture Figure 4.jpg

2.6.5 网络架构一

Network Architecture Figure 1.jpg

2.6.6 网络架构二

Network Architecture Figure 2.jpg

2.6.7 网络架构三

Network Architecture Figure 3.jpg