Incoterms Rules 2010 国际贸易术语解释通则 2010

The Incoterms® rules have become an essential part of the daily language of trade. They have been incorporated in contracts for the sale of goods worldwide and provide rules and guidance to importers, exporters, lawyers, transporters, insurers and students of international trade. Below are short descriptions of the 11 rules from the Incoterms® 2010 edition.

《国际贸易术语解释通则》已成为日常贸易语言的重要组成部分。它们已被纳入全球货物销售合同,并向进口商、出口商、律师、运输商、保险公司和国际贸易专业的学生提供规则和指导。以下是国际贸易术语解释通则®2010版11条规则的简要说明。

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1 RULES FOR ANY MODE OR MODES OF TRANSPORT 任何运输方式的规则

1.1 EXW: Ex Works 工厂交货

“Ex Works” means that the seller delivers when it places the goods at the disposal of the buyer at the seller’s premises or at another named place (i.e.,works, factory, warehouse, etc.). The seller does not need to load the goods on any collecting vehicle, nor does it need to clear the goods for export, where such clearance is applicable.

“工厂交货”指当卖方在其所在地或其他指定的地点(如工场、工厂或仓库)将货物交给买方处置时,即完成交货,卖方不办理出口清关手续或将货物装上任何运输工具。

注意:需要将货备好等客户安排承运人来提货即可。该术语是卖方承担责任最小的术语。

1.2 FCA: Free Carrier 货交承运人

“Free Carrier” means that the seller delivers the goods to the carrier or another person nominated by the buyer at the seller’s premises or another named place. The parties are well advised to specify as clearly as possible the point within the named place of delivery, as the risk passes to the buyer at that point.

“货交承运人”是指卖方将货物交付给承运人或买方指定的另一个人,地点在卖方的场所或另一个指定的地点。建议双方在指定的交货地点内尽可能清楚地指定交货地点,因为风险将在该地点转移给买方。

注意:指卖方只要将货物在指定的地点交给买方指定的承运人,并办理了出口清关手续,即完成交货。交货地点的选择对于在该地点装货和卸货的义务会产生影响。若卖方在其所在地交货,则卖方应负责装货,若卖方在任何其他地点交货,卖方不负责装货。适合于任何运输方式,包括多式运输。

1.3 CPT: Carriage Paid To 运费付至

“Carriage Paid To” means that the seller delivers the goods to the carrier or another person nominated by the seller at an agreed place (if any such place is agreed between parties) and that the seller must contract for and pay the costs of carriage necessary to bring the goods to the named place of destination.

“运费付至”是指卖方将货物交付给承运人或卖方指定的其他人在约定的地点(如果双方同意的话),卖方必须订立合同并支付将货物运至指定的费用。

注意:买方承担交货之后一切风险和其他费用。

1.4 CIP: Carriage And Insurance Paid To 运费和保险费付至

“Carriage and Insurance Paid to” means that the seller delivers the goods to the carrier or another person nominated by the seller at an agreed place (if any such place is agreed between parties) and that the seller must contract for and pay the costs of carriage necessary to bring the goods to the named place of destination.

“运费和保险费付至”是指卖方将货物交付给承运人或卖方指定的另一人在约定的地点(如果双方同意的话),并且卖方必须订立合同并支付将货物运至目的地所需的运费。

1.5 DAT: Delivered At Terminal 码头交货

“Delivered at Terminal” means that the seller delivers when the goods, once unloaded from the arriving means of transport, are placed at the disposal of the buyer at a named terminal at the named port or place of destination. “Terminal” includes a place, whether covered or not, such as a quay, warehouse, container yard or road, rail or air cargo terminal. The seller bears all risks involved in bringing the goods to and unloading them at the terminal at the named port or place of destination.

“码头交货”是指卖方在指定港口或目的地的指定终点站将货物从到达的运输工具上卸下后交由买方处置时交货。“码头”包括码头、仓库、集装箱堆场或道路、铁路或航空货运码头等有盖或无盖的地方。卖方承担将货物运至指定港口或目的地的码头并将货物卸下所涉及的一切风险。

1.6 DAP: Delivered At Place 所在地交货

“Delivered at Place” means that the seller delivers when the goods are placed at the disposal of the buyer on the arriving means of transport ready for unloading at the named place of destination. The seller bears all risks involved in bringing the goods to the named place.

“所在地交货”指卖方已经用运输工具把货物运送到达买方指定的目的地后,将装在运输工具上的货物(不用卸载)交由买方处置,即完成交货。卖方承担将货物运至指定地点所涉及的一切风险。

1.7 DDP: Delivered Duty Paid 税后交货

“Delivered Duty Paid” means that the seller delivers the goods when the goods are placed at the disposal of the buyer, cleared for import on the arriving means of transport ready for unloading at the named place of destination. The seller bears all the costs and risks involved in bringing the goods to the place of destination and has an obligation to clear the goods not only for export but also for import, to pay any duty for both export and import and to carry out all customs formalities.

“税后交货”是指卖方在货物交由买方支配、在指定目的地准备卸货的运输工具上办理进口清关手续后交货。卖方承担将货物运至目的地所涉及的一切费用和风险,并有义务不仅为出口清关,也为进口清关,支付进出口关税,办理一切海关手续。

2 RULES FOR SEA AND INLAND WATERWAY TRANSPORT 海上和内河运输规则

2.1 FAS: Free Alongside Ship 船边交货

“Free Alongside Ship” means that the seller delivers when the goods are placed alongside the vessel (e.g., on a quay or a barge) nominated by the buyer at the named port of shipment. The risk of loss of or damage to the goods passes when the goods are alongside the ship, and the buyer bears all costs from that moment onwards.

“船边交货”指卖方在指定的装运港将货物放在买方指定的船边(如码头或驳船上)交货。货物在船边发生灭失或损坏的风险,自该时刻起由买方承担全部费用。

2.2 FOB: Free On Board 船上交货

“Free On Board” means that the seller delivers the goods on board the vessel nominated by the buyer at the named port of shipment or procures the goods already so delivered. The risk of loss of or damage to the goods passes when the goods are on board the vessel, and the buyer bears all costs from that moment onwards.

“船上交货”系指卖方将货物装上买方指定的船只,在指定的装运港交货,或采购已交货的货物。货物的灭失或损坏风险在货物上船时已过去,买方自货物上船之日起承担全部费用。

2.3 CFR: Cost and Freight 成本加运费

“Cost and Freight” means that the seller delivers the goods on board the vessel or procures the goods already so delivered. The risk of loss of or damage to the goods passes when the goods are on board the vessel. the seller must contract for and pay the costs and freight necessary to bring the goods to the named port of destination.

“成本加运费”是指卖方在船上交付货物或取得已交付的货物。货物在船上时,货物灭失或损坏的风险就过去了。卖方必须订立合同并支付将货物运至指定目的港所需的费用和运费。

2.4 CIF: Cost, Insurance and Freight 成本费加保险费加运费

“Cost, Insurance and Freight” means that the seller delivers the goods on board the vessel or procures the goods already so delivered. The risk of loss of or damage to the goods passes when the goods are on board the vessel. The seller must contract for and pay the costs and freight necessary to bring the goods to the named port of destination.

“成本、保险和运费”是指卖方将货物装上船或取得已交付的货物。货物在船上时,货物灭失或损坏的风险就过去了。卖方必须订立合同并支付将货物运至指定目的港所需的费用和运费。

‘The seller also contracts for insurance cover against the buyer’s risk of loss of or damage to the goods during the carriage. The buyer should note that under CIF the seller is required to obtain insurance only on minimum cover. Should the buyer wish to have more insurance protection, it will need either to agree as much expressly with the seller or to make its own extra insurance arrangements.”

卖方还为买方在运输过程中货物灭失或损坏的风险投保。买方应注意,在CIF价格条件下,卖方只需投保最低限度的险别。如果买方希望获得更多的保险保障,则需要与卖方达成尽可能明确的协议,或自行制定额外的保险安排。”

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参考1:https://iccwbo.org/resources-for-business/incoterms-rules/incoterms-rules-2010/