APQP PHASE 5: Feedback, Assessment & Corrective Action 启动,评估和纠正措施

1 Introduction 简介

Quality planning does not end with process validation and installation. It is the component manufacturing stage where output can be evaluated when all special and common causes of variation are present. This is also the time to evaluate the effectiveness of the product quality planning effort. The production control plan is the basis for evaluating product or service at this stage. Variable and attribute data must be evaluated. Appropriate actions as described in the Chrysler, Ford, and General Motors Statistical Process Control (SPC) reference manual must be taken. Organizations that fully implement an effective APQP process will be in a better position to meet customer requirements including any special characteristics specified by the customer. The inputs and outputs applicable to the process step in this chapter are as follows:

质量计划不会以流程验证和安装结束。 在组件制造阶段,当存在所有特殊和常见的变化原因时,可以评估输出。 这也是评估产品质量计划工作有效性的时候。 生产控制计划是在此阶段评估产品或服务的基础。 必须评估变量和属性数据。 必须采取克莱斯勒,福特和通用汽车统计过程控制(SPC)参考手册中所述的适当措施。 完全实施有效APQP流程的组织将能够更好地满足客户要求,包括客户指定的任何特殊特征。 适用于本章过程步骤的输入和输出如下:

INPUTS
主要输入
OUTPUTS
主要输出
• Significant Production Run
  重大生产运行
• Measurement Systems Evaluation
  测量系统评估
• Preliminary Process Capability Study
  初始工艺能力研究
• Production Part Approval
  生产件批准
• Production Validation Testing
  生产验证测试
• Packaging Evaluation
  包装评估
• Production Control Plan
  生产控制计划
• Quality Planning Sign-Off and Management Support
  质量计划签署和管理支持
• Reduced Variation
  减少表差
• Improved Customer Satisfaction
  提高客户满意度
• Improved Delivery and Service
  改善交付和服务
• Effective use of Lessons Learned/Best Practices
  有效利用经验教训/最佳实践

2 Content 内容

2.1 Reduced Variation 减少表差

Control charts and other statistical techniques should be used as tools to identify process variation. Analysis and corrective actions should be used to reduce variation. Continual improvement requires attention not only to the special causes of variation but understanding common causes and seeking ways to reduce these sources of variation. Proposals should be developed including costs, timing, and anticipated improvement for customer review. The reduction or elimination of a common cause may provide the additional benefit of lower costs. Organizations should be using tools such as value analysis and reduction of variation to improve quality and reduce cost. Refer to the Chrysler, Ford, and General Motors Statistical Process Control (SPC) reference manual for details on long-term capability, special and common causes of variation.

应使用控制图和其他统计技术作为识别过程变化的工具。 应使用分析和纠正措施来减少变化。 持续改进不仅需要注意变异的特殊原因,还需要了解常见原因,并寻求减少这些变异来源的方法。 应制定提案,包括成本,时间安排和客户审查的预期改进。 减少或消除共同原因可以提供降低成本的额外好处。 组织应使用价值分析和减少变异等工具来提高质量并降低成本。 有关长期能力,特殊和常见变异原因的详细信息,请参阅克莱斯勒,福特和通用汽车统计过程控制(SPC)参考手册。

2.2 Improved Customer Satisfaction 提高客户满意度

Detailed planning activities and demonstrated process capability of a product or service are important components to customer satisfaction. However, the product or service still has to perform in the customer environment. This product usage stage requires organization participation. In this stage much can be learned by the organization and customer. The effectiveness of the product quality planning efforts can also be evaluated at this stage.

详细的计划活动和展示的产品或服务的过程能力是客户满意度的重要组成部分。 但是,产品或服务仍然必须在客户环境中执行。 此产品使用阶段需要组织参与。 在这个阶段,组织和客户可以学到很多东西。 在此阶段还可以评估产品质量计划工作的有效性。

The organization and customer become partners in making the changes necessary to correct any deficiencies and to improve customer satisfaction.

组织和客户成为合作伙伴,进行必要的更改以纠正任何缺陷并提高客户满意度。

2.3 Improved Delivery and Service 改善交付和服务

The delivery and service stage of quality planning continues the organization and customer partnership in solving problems and continual improvement. The customer's replacement parts and service operations must also meet requirements for quality, cost, and delivery. The goal is first time quality. However, where problems or deficiencies occur in the field it is essential that the organization and customer form an effective partnership to correct the problem and satisfy the end-user customer.

质量计划的交付和服务阶段继续组织和客户合作解决问题和持续改进。 客户的更换零件和服务操作还必须满足质量,成本和交付要求。 目标是第一时间的质量。 但是,如果在现场出现问题或缺陷,组织和客户必须形成有效的合作伙伴关系,以纠正问题并满足最终用户的需求。

The experience gained in this stage provides the customer and organization with the necessary knowledge to reduce process, inventory, and quality costs and to provide the right component or system for the next product.

在此阶段获得的经验为客户和组织提供了必要的知识,以减少流程,库存和质量成本,并为下一个产品提供正确的组件或系统。

2.4 Effective use of Lessons Learned/Best Practices 有效利用经验教训/最佳实践

A Lessons Learned or Best Practices portfolio is beneficial for capturing, retaining and applying knowledge. Input to Lessons Learned and Best Practices can be obtained through a variety of methods including:

经验教训或最佳实践组合有助于捕获,保留和应用知识。 可以通过各种方法获得经验教训和最佳实践的输入,包括:

• Review of Things Gone Right/Things Gone Wrong (TGR/TGW)
  回顾事态发展正确/事态发展错误(TGR / TGW)
• Data from warranty and other performance metrics
  来自保修和其他性能指标的数据
• Corrective action plans
  纠正行动计划
• "Read-across" with similar products and processes
  与类似的产品和流程“通读”
• DFMEA and PFMEA studie
  DFMEA和PFMEA存根