APQP PHASE 1: Plan and Define Program 计划和定义

1 Introduction 简介

This artical describes how customer needs and expectations are linked to planning and defining a quality program. The goal of any product program is meeting customer needs while providing competitive value. The initial step of the product quality planning process is to ensure that customer needs and expectations are clearly understood.
The inputs and outputs applicable to the planning process may vary according to the product development process, and customer needs and expectations.
本篇描述了客户需求和期望如何与规划和定义质量相关联。任何产品计划的目标都是满足客户需求,同时提供有竞争力的价值。产品质量计划流程的第一步是确保明确了解客户需求和期望。
适用于规划过程的输入和输出可能根据产品开发过程,客户需求和期望而有所不同。

INPUTS
主要输入
OUTPUTS
主要输出
• Voice of the Customer
  客户之声
  -Market Research
  -市场调研
  -Historical Warranty and Quality Information
  -保修记录和质量信息
  -Team Experience
  -小组经验
• Business Plan/Marketing Strategy
  业务计划/营销策略
• Product/Process Benchmark Data
  产品/工艺基准数据
• Product/Process Assumptions
  产品/工艺设想
• Product Reliability Studies
  产品可靠性研究
• Customer Inputs
  客户输入
• Design Goals
  设计目标
• Reliability & Quality goals
  可靠性和质量目标
• Preliminary Bill of Materials
  初始材料清单
• Preliminary Process Flow Chart
  初始工艺流程图
• Preliminary Listing of Special Product and Process Characteristics
  特殊产品和工艺特性清单
• Product Assurance Plan
  产品保证计划
• Management Support
  管理支持

2 Content 内容

2.1 Voice of the Customer 客户的呼声

The "Voice of the Customer" encompasses complaints, recommendations, data and information obtained from internal and/or external customers. Some methods for gathering this information appear in the following paragraphs.
“客户之声” 包含从内部和/或外部客户获得的投诉,建议,数据和信息。收集此信息的一些方法显示在以下段落中。

2.1.1 Market Research 市场调研

Market Research 市场调研
The organization’s product quality planning team may need to obtain market research data and information reflecting the Voice of the Customer. The following sources can assist in identifying customer concerns and wants and translating those concerns into product and process characteristics:
组织的产品质量计划团队可能需要获取反映客户之声的市场研究数据和信息。 以下来源可以帮助识别客户关注点和需求,并将这些问题转化为产品和流程特征:
• Customer interviews
  客户访谈
• Customer questionnaires and surveys
  客户问卷调查
• Market test and positioning reports
  市场测试和定位报告
• New product quality and reliability studies
  新产品质量和可靠性研究
• Competitive product quality studies
  竞争产品质量研究
• Best Practices
  最佳实践
• Lessons Learned
  经验教训

2.1.2 Historical Warranty and Quality Information 保修记录和质量信息

Historical Warranty and Quality Information 保修记录和质量信息
A list of historical customer concerns and wants should be prepared to assess the potential for recurrence during the design, manufacture, installation and use of the product. These should be considered as an extension of the other design requirements and included in the analysis of customer needs.
Many of the following items can assist the team in identifying customer concerns and wants and prioritizing appropriate resolutions.
在设计、制造、安装和使用产品的过程中,应准备一份客户关注的历史问题和需求清单,以评估其复发的可能性。这些应该被认为是其他设计需求的扩展,并包含在客户需求分析中。
以下许多项目可以帮助团队确定客户的关注点和需求,并确定适当解决方案的优先级。
• Best Practices
  最佳实践
• Lessons Learned
  经验教训
• Warranty reports
  保修报告
• Capability indicators
  能力指标
• Supplier plant internal quality reports
  供应商工厂内部质量报告
• Problem resolution reports
  问题解决报告
• Customer plant returns and rejections
  客户工厂退货和拒绝
• Field return product analysis
  现场退货产品分析

2.1.3 Team Experience 小组经验

Team Experience 小组经验
The team may use any source of any information as appropriate, including the following:
小组可酌情使用任何资料来源,包括下列资料:
• Input from higher system level or past Quality Function Deployment (QFD) projects
  来自更高系统级别或过去的质量功能部署(QFD)项目的输入
• Media commentary and analysis: magazine and newspaper reports, etc.
  媒体评论与分析杂志、报纸报道等
• Customer letters and suggestions
  保修报告
• Best Practices
  能力指标
• Lessons Learned
  供应商工厂内部质量报告
• Dealer comments
  问题解决报告
• Fleet Operator's comments
  客户工厂退货和拒绝
• Field service reports analysis
  现场退货产品分析
• Internal evaluations using surrogate customers
  使用代理客户进行的内部评估
• Road trips
  公路旅行
• Management comments or direction
  管理意见或指示
• Problems and issues reported from internal customers
  内部客户报告的问题
• Government requirements and regulations
  政府规定及规例
• Contract review
  合同评审

2.2 Business Plan and Marketing Strategy 业务计划/营销策略

The customer business plan and marketing strategy will set the framework for the product quality plan. The business plan may place constraints (e.g., timing, cost, investment, product positioning, research and development (R&D) resources) on the team that affect the direction taken. The marketing strategy will define the target customer, the key sales points, and key competitiors.

客户业务计划和营销策略将为产品质量计划建立框架。业务计划可能会对团队施加约束(例如,时间、成本、投资、产品定位、研究和开发(R&D)资源),从而影响所采取的方向。营销策略将定义目标客户、关键销售点和关键竞争对手。

2.3 Product/Process Benchmark Data 产品/工艺基准数据

Product/Process Benchmark Data 产品/工艺基准数据
The use of benchmarking (referenced in Appendix B) will provide input to establishing product/process performance targets. Research and development may also provide benchmarks and concept ideas. One method to successful benchmarking is:
使用基准测试(见附录B)将为制定产品/工艺绩效目标提供输入。研究和开发也可能提供基准和概念。成功的基准测试方法之一是:
• Identify the appropriate benchmarks.
  确定适当的基准
• Understand the reason for the gap between your current status and the benchmark.
  了解您当前状态与基准之间存在差距的原因
• Develop a plan to close the gap, match the benchmark, or exceed the benchmark.
  制定一个缩小差距、匹配基准或超过基准的计划

2.4 Product/Process Assumptions 产品/工艺设想

There will be assumptions that the product has certain features, design, or process concepts. These include technical innovations, advanced materials, reliability assessments, and new technology. All should be utilized as inputs.

假设产品具有某些特性、设计或流程概念。这些包括技术创新、先进材料、可靠性评估和新技术。所有这些都应作为投入加以利用。

2.5 Product Reliability Studdies 产品可靠性研究

This type of data considers frequency of repair or replacement of components within designated periods of time and the results of long-term reliability/durability tests.

此类数据考虑了在指定时间段内维修或更换部件的频率以及长期可靠性/耐久性试验的结果。

2.6 Customer Inputs 客户输入

The next users of the product can provide valuable information relating to their needs and expectations. In addition, the next product users may have already conducted some or all of the aforementioned reviews and studies. These inputs should be used by the customer and/or organization to develop agreed upon measures of customer satisfaction.

产品的下一个用户可以提供与其需求和期望相关的有价值的信息。此外,下一个产品用户可能已经进行了上述的部分或全部审查和研究。客户和/或组织应使用这些输入来制定商定的客户满意度措施。

2.7 Design Goals 设计目标

Design goals are a translation of the Voice of the Customer into measurable design objectives. The proper selection of design goals assures that the Voice of the Customer is not lost in subsequent design activity. The Voice of the Customer also includes regulatory requirements such as materials composition reporting and polymeric part marking.

设计目标是将客户的声音转化为可度量的设计目标。正确选择设计目标可以确保在后续的设计活动中不会丢失客户的声音。客户的声音还包括法规要求,如材料成分报告和聚合物部件标记。

2.8 Reliability & Quality goals 可靠性和质量目标

Reliability goals are established based on customer wants and expectations, program objectives, and reliability benchmarks. An example of customer wants and expectations could include no safety failures. Some reliability benchmarks could be competitor product reliability, warranty data, or frequency of repair over a set time period. Quality goals should be based on metrics such as parts per million, problem levels, or scrap reduction.

可靠性目标是根据客户的需求和期望、项目目标和可靠性基准建立的。客户希望和期望的一个例子可能包括没有安全故障。一些可靠性基准可以是竞争对手的产品可靠性、保修数据或在规定时间内的维修频率。质量目标应以百万分之几、问题级别或废料减少等指标为基础。

2.9 Preliminary Bill of Materials 初始材料清单

The team should establish a preliminary bill of material based on product/process assumptions and include a potential supplier list. In order to identify the preliminary special product/process characteristics it is necessary to have selected the appropriate design and manufacturing process.

团队应根据产品/工艺假设建立一份初步的物料清单,并包括一份潜在的供应商清单。为了确定初步的特殊产品/工艺特性,必须选择适当的设计和制造工艺。

2.10 Preliminary Process Flow Chart 初始工艺流程图

The anticipated manufacturing process should be described using a process flow chart developed from the preliminary bill of material and product/process assumptions.

应使用根据初步材料清单和产品/工艺假设编制的工艺流程图描述预期的制造工艺。

2.11 Preliminary Listing of Special Product and Process Characteristics 特殊产品和工艺特性清单

Preliminary Listing of Special Product and Process Characteristics 特殊产品和工艺特性清单
Special product and process characteristics are identified by the customer in addition to those selected by the organization through knowledge of the product and process. Examples of input to identification of special characteristics include:
除组织通过对产品和过程的了解所选择的特性外,顾客还应识别特殊的产品和过程特性。识别特殊特性的输入示例包括:
• Product assumptions based on the analysis of customer needs and expectations.
  基于客户需求和期望分析的产品假设
• Identification of reliability goals and requirements.
  确定可靠性目标和要求
• Identification of special process characteristics from the anticipated manufacturing process.
  根据预期的制造工艺识别特殊工艺特性
• Similar part FMEAs.
  类似零件FMEA

2.12 Product Assurance Plan 产品保证计划

Product Assurance Plan 产品保证计划
The Product Assurance Plan translates design goals into design requirements and is based on customer needs and expectations. This manual does not require a specific method for preparing a Product Assurance Plan. The Product Assurance Plan can be developed in any format understood by the organization and should include:
产品保证计划将设计目标转化为设计要求,并基于客户需求和期望。本手册不要求制定产品保证计划的具体方法。产品保证计划可以以组织理解的任何形式制定,并应包括:
• Outlining of program requirements.
  概述项目要求
• Identification of reliability, durability, and apportionment/allocation goals and/or requirements.
  确定可靠性、耐久性和分配/分配目标和/或要求
• Assessment of new technology, complexity, materials, application, environment, packaging, service, and manufacturing requirements, or any other factor that may place the program at risk.
  评估新技术、复杂性、材料、应用、环境、包装、服务和制造要求,或任何其他可能使项目面临风险的因素
• Use of Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA).
  使用故障模式和影响分析(FMEA)
• Development of preliminary engineering requirements.
  制定初步工程要求

2.13 Management Support 管理支持

One of the keys to the success of Advanced Product Quality Planning is the interest, commitment and support of upper management. Participation by management in product quality planning meetings is vital to ensuring the success of the program. Management should be updated at the conclusion of every product quality planning phase to reinforce their commitment and support. Updates and/or requests for assistance can occur more frequently as required. A primary goal of Advanced Product Quality Planning is to maintain management support by demonstrating that all planning requirements have been met and/or concerns documented and scheduled for resolution, including program timing and planning for resources and staffing to support required capacity.

产品质量先期策划成功的关键之一是上层管理人员的兴趣、承诺和支持。管理层参与产品质量规划会议对于确保项目的成功至关重要。在每个产品质量规划阶段结束时,应更新管理,以加强其承诺和支持。如有需要,更新和/或请求援助的情况可以更频繁地发生。高级产品质量规划的一个主要目标是通过证明所有的规划要求已经被满足和/或被记录下来并计划解决的关注点,包括计划时间和资源的规划以及支持所需能力的人员配置,来保持管理支持。